- Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with considerable morbidity and risk of mortality.
- Risk factors for CDI include antibiotic use, hospitalisation, advanced age, underlying morbidity and inflammatory bowel disease.
- Three systematic reviews/meta-analyses using data from observational case-control and cohort studies conclude that whilst a causal link has not been established, the weight of evidence suggests an association between use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and CDI.
- Public Health England guidelines recommend that consideration be given to stopping or reviewing the need for PPIs in patients with or at high risk of CDI.
This Medicines Q&A has not been updated since 2016 but is currently being updated (due Spring 2021)