CAR-T therapy often causes cytokine release syndrome (CRS) which is treated with tocilizumab as first-line therapy. Tocilizumab is licensed for this indication but in some cases is not sufficiently effective. Anakinra or siltuximab have been considered in this case, but both medicines are unlicensed for this indication.
This review considers the published clinical evidence which is directly relevant to the use of siltuximab or anakinra in humans for CRS. It focuses on the use of these as second-line treatments for CAR-T cell therapy associated CRS after failure of tocilizumab.