Ankle oedema is a common, often troublesome adverse effect for patients who are receiving calcium channel blocker (CCB) therapy, and may affect compliance. It is usually refractory to diuretic treatment as it is due to changes in capillary pressure leading to leakage into interstitial areas, rather than due to water retention.
Treatment strategies include:
- Non-pharmacological interventions.
- Dosage adjustments.
- Switching to a non-dihydropyridine CCB.
- Adding an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB).
- Adding a nitrate.
- Discontinuation of CCB.
Of these options, the strongest evidence base is for adding in an ACEI. ARBs may be used in patients in whom ACEIs are not tolerated.