Safety in Lactation: Drugs for hyperlipidaemias

Additional information relating to breastfeeding

To be used in conjunction with individual drug entries for specific information and guidance.

There is no evidence for the safe use of lipid regulating drugs in lactation. Their mechanism of action could lead to a detrimental effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, which is essential for neonatal development, although there is no clinical evidence for this in breast-fed infants. Discontinuation of these drugs is unlikely to have a negative impact on the management of maternal hypercholesterolaemia in the short-term.

Statins

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are not recommended during breastfeeding due to their potential serious adverse effects in adults, which, theoretically, could occur in the infant.

Fibrates

There is no evidence on the safe use of fibrates (including gemfibrozil), which probably carry the same risks as statins.

Bile acid sequestrants

Bile acid sequestrants (colesevelam, colestyramine, colestipol) are resins which have no or minimal absorption from the mother’s GI tract and are therefore unlikely to appear in breast milk. They may decrease maternal absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) leading to reduced vitamin availability to the infant from breast milk, although there is no clinical evidence to support this.

Other lipid lowering drugs

Omega-3 fatty acids (marine/fish oils) principally contain components normally found in breast milk — eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
Acipimox is a niacin derivative and therefore related to nicotinic acid.

AcipimoxAlirocumabAtorvastatinBezafibrateCardiovascular system disordersCiprofibrateColesevelamColestipolColestyramineEicosapentaenoic acid + Docosahexaenoic acidEvolocumabEzetimibeFenofibrateFluvastatinGemfibrozilLomitapideNicotinic acidObstetrics and gynaecologyPaediatric and neonatal medicinePravastatinRosuvastatinSafety in LactationSimvastatin