This page summarises and signposts to medicine related guidance we’re aware of from professional and government bodies relating to coronavirus and respiratory disorders.
Our advice is constantly reviewed as the pandemic situation evolves.
Whilst we have tried to ensure that the information on this page is complete, please report a concern if you feel anything is omitted or inaccurate.
To see our professional guidance summaries for other clinical areas, click here
Advice in this area includes:
NHS Getting it Right First Time (GIRFT) Reports: Clinical practice guide for improving the management of adult COVID-19 patients in secondary care
Respiratory section is detailed on p30-34. Guidance of relevance to respiratory medicines includes:
- A significant proportion of patients attending hospital with COVID-19 will require oxygen therapy and/or ventilatory support.
- Local guidelines should be in place for: managing patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen therapy (taking note of oxygen flows to wards and potential oxygen demand); respiratory support units for the initiation and maintenance/management of ventilatory support either outside or within critical care; use of dexamethasone and remdesivir; documentation of ceilings of care / escalation protocols and the follow up of patients post COVID-19
NHS England/NHS Improvement: Palivizumab passive immunisation against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in at-risk pre-term infants
Updated 1 July 2021
- This document sets out the interim clinical commissioning position for passive immunisation with palivizumab against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in at-risk pre-term infants.
- The policy proposes extension of the eligibility criteria for immunisation with palivizumab (within the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic) to a further group of at-risk infants, to decrease hospitalisation and intensive care admission rates with the aim of reducing the risk of nosocomial infection and pressure on the health system.
- p4-5 of the document provides guidance on eligibility criteria, recommended dose of palivizumab and precautions/contraindications.
NHS England/NHS Improvement: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) standard operating procedure: COVID Oximetry @home
Updated 9 September 2021
- Further to guidance on the use of pulse oximetry (published 11 June 2020 and updated 29 January 2021), all CCGs were recommended to put in place a “COVID Oximetry @home” model during November 2020.
- This SOP sets out a base standard for patient self-monitoring.
- It outlines the patient journey from referral to triage to onboarding to monitoring to recovery and discharge, and provides details on supply and safe re-use of pulse oximeters, including how to order and distribute them safely to patients.
- Oximeters should be available for same day distribution to patients, including out of hours (ideally within 12 hours).
NHS England/NHS Improvement: COVID-19 therapy: corticosteroids including dexamethasone and hydrocortisone
Published 13 November 2020
- Advice highlighting WHO guidance for systemic corticosteroids to be used only in patients with severe and critical COVID-19 disease. Provides an update to advice in MHRA CAS Alert.
- Dexamethasone is indicated for (suspected or confirmed) COVID-19 in hospitalised adult patients having oxygen therapy, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or ECMO.
- Evidence of benefit of dexamethasone in children is unproven, and is still being studied (e.g. RECOVERY trial).
- Pregnant or breastfeeding women should receive oral prednisolone (40mg) or IV hydrocortisone (80mg twice daily) rather than dexamethasone.
Last updated 15 June 2021
- Outlines eligibility criteria for use of remdesivir as a treatment option through routine commissioning for patients aged 12 years and older hospitalised with COVID-19, and provides recommendations on dose, use in pregnancy, monitoring, stopping criteria, and co-administration with other treatments, e.g. corticosteroids.
NHS England/NHS Improvement: Interim Clinical Commissioning Policy: Tocilizumab for hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (adults)
Last updated 12 September 2021
- Provides criteria for availability of tocilizumab as a treatment option through routine commissioning for adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19
NHS England/NHS Improvement: Interim Clinical Commissioning Policy: Sarilumab for critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (adults)
Last updated 12 September 2021
- Provides criteria for availability of sarilumab as a treatment option through routine commissioning for adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19
Last updated 4 October 2021
- This guideline covers the management of COVID-19 for children, young people and adults in all care settings. It brings together existing NICE recommendations on managing COVID-19, and new recommendations on therapeutics, so that healthcare staff and those planning and delivering services can find and use them more easily.
- Section 6.1.2 discusses managing cough with recommendations for simple measures first (e.g. honey) or short-term use of a cough suppressant (e.g. oral codeine or morphine) second-line in over 18s (specialist advice recommended for under 18 years)
- Section 6.1.4 discusses managing breathlessness and recommends considering a trial of oxygen when hypoxia is the likely cause of breathlessness, with possible transfer to secondary care
- Section 7.2 outlines recommendations for use of remdesivir for COVID-19 pneumonia in people 12 years and over weighing 40kg or more, in hospital needing low-flow supplemental oxygen.
- Section 7.3 summarises recommendations on corticosteroids (dexamethasone, hydrocortisone or prednisolone) for people with COVID-19 needing supplemental oxygen. Corticosteroids should be continued for up to 10 days unless there is a clear indication to stop early. Practical info section provides details on recommended doses for adults and children.
- Sections 7.5 and 7.6 provide recommendations on use of tocilizumab or sarilumab if required in adults.
Last updated 3 April 2020
- This guideline includes recommendations for treatment of severe asthma, including biological treatment and corticosteroids
- It also includes recommendations for safe use of equipment, including face masks, nebulisers, inhalers, spacers and peak flow meters
- There is a recommendation not to prescribe more than 30 days’ supply of asthma medicines per patient to protect the supply chain
Last updated 9 April 2020
- This guideline includes recommendations for treatment of COPD including advice on treatment with inhaled or long-term oral corticosteroids, self-management of exacerbations, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen, prophylactic oral antibiotics and airway clearance techniques
- It also includes recommendations for safe use of equipment, including face masks, nebulisers, inhalers, spacers and peak flow meters, and for patients receiving home non-invasive ventilation
- There is a recommendation to carry out or defer assessments on a case-by-case basis to establish eligibility for long-term oxygen therapy or home non-invasive ventilation, and not to prescribe more than 30 days’ supply of COPD medicines per patient to protect the supply chain
Last updated 1 April 2020
- Review of the myCOPD digital self-management tool (app), a registered class I medical device, for consideration as part of self-management for people as an alternative to some routine healthcare visits such as pulmonary rehabilitation
Last updated 7 October 2020
- Includes advice on safety of nebuliser treatment for patients with known or suspected COVID-19 infection (recommendation 1.14)
- Provides recommendations on continuing with usual CF self-care treatments of including prophylactic antibiotics (oral and IV), mucoactive agents, CFTR therapies, and diet, vitamins and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy
- It also includes recommendations on hygiene of equipment, including face masks and nebulisers, recommendations not to exceed normal quantities of medicines on prescription (usually 30 days) to protect the supply chain, and to follow previous advice on management of exacerbations
- Advice is given for specialist CF centres to maintain sufficient access to day-case facilities for procedures such as administering first doses of IV antibiotics for courses to be delivered at home and flushing totally implantable intravenous devices. Flushing frequency may be reduced from usual practice or home visit may be considered if no alternative is possible (recommendation 3.4).
- Recommendations are provided for access and monitoring of patients on CFTR therapies (recommendation 3.9)
Last updated 10 July 2020
- Review of CFHealthHub, a digital platform to help adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) manage their condition and monitor their medicine use.
- Use of this technology may allow people to attend virtual clinics, supporting those shielding from COVID-19.
Last updated 15 May 2020
- Includes advice for patients to keep a list of their current medicines, conditions and allergies, as well as a copy of a recent clinic letter, to give to healthcare staff if they need treatment for COVID-19.
- Includes advice on assessing symptoms, including reminders of possible atypical presentation in patients taking immunosuppressants, and potential for confusion with adverse effects of antifibrotics or immunosuppressants and symptoms of COVID-19, as well as increased risk of coagulopathy in patients with ILD and COVID-19 with link to BTS guidelines for VTE (see below).
- Also recommends considering alternatives to hospital attendance for blood monitoring in patients taking antifibrotics or immunosuppressants, e.g. community blood monitoring services.
- Provides guidance on starting and continuing treatments (e.g. immunosuppressants and antifibrotics) for ILD, and on oxygen assessment. Also offers guidance on continuing or stopping treatments for ILD in patients known or suspected to have COVID-19, including in patients who develop acute kidney injury or deranged LFTs due to COVID-19.
- Provides advice on supply of medicines, including planning for managing any disruption to normal supply routes, and advice not to prescribe in large quantities.
Last updated 21 May 2020
- Review of cytokine absorption devices for reducing harmful blood levels of cytokines in people who have tested positive for COVID-19 and have imminent or confirmed respiratory failure.
- This treatment would be given by trained intensive care consultants and specialist nurses on critical care units as a standalone therapy or with other extracorporeal therapies including renal replacement therapy and oxygenation membrane therapy.
12 September 2021
- A single UK Interim Clinical Commissioning Policy has now been published, recommending that equal consideration is given to two potential interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitor treatment options – tocilizumab or sarilumab – for adult patients (aged 18 years and older) hospitalised due to COVID-19 in accordance with the agreed criteria.
- The combined policy replaces previous separately published policies for sarilumab and tocilizumab respectively.
12 April 2021
- Provides recommendations for considering off-label use of inhaled budesonide on a case-by-case basis following reports of benefit in the PRINCIPLE trial
- Provides details of eligibility and exclusion criteria, recommended dose (800 micrograms twice daily for up to 14 days or until all doses of the inhaler have been used) and choice of device (e.g. Pulmicort Turbohaler, Budelin Novolizer or budesonide Easyhaler)
Updated on an ongoing basis
- Links to guidance for patients on reducing risk of getting coronavirus and information about the COVID-19 vaccine
- Advice for high risk groups including advice on booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine
- Guidance for patients with asthma on what to do if they get COVID-19 including advice not to stop using their asthma medicines, including taking oral steroids if prescribed, and cautions that reliever inhalers may not work for symptoms caused by COVID-19. Advice is also offered to help distinguish asthma symptoms from symptoms of recovery from COVID-19.
British Thoracic Society: COVID-19: information for the respiratory community
Last updated 4 October 2021
Provides links to guidance, information and resources to support the respiratory community during the COVID-19 pandemic, with cautions that the individual guidance documents, some of which may have been more relevant during the peaks of the pandemic, are not being reviewed or updated, thus this should be considered when referring to the information provided. The latest update (4 October 2021) provides links to guidance and advice on COVID-19 vaccination for respiratory patients, including ‘at risk’ children; booster vaccination for ‘at-risk’ adults or third primary doses for patients with severe immunosuppression. Links to other guidance or information of particular relevance to medicines use is:
- Joint BTS and Intensive Care Society guidance on respiratory care in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 that refers to use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), High-Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) and Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV) therapy and provides a COVID-19 Respiratory Support Pathway Flowchart to provide guidance for which patients could be looked after in non-critical care settings and what criteria should be used for escalation to areas with higher acuity treatments. The guidance aligns with NICE guidance advising that oxygen prescribing targets on respiratory support units should be adjusted to 92-96%, while the trigger for transfer remains at 94%.
- BTS guidance on respiratory follow-up of patients with radiologically confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. This guidance focuses on the radiological follow up of the pneumonic process and the subsequent diagnosis and management of respiratory complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. p11 provides advice on duration of anticoagulation in patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism during the acute illness.
- Oxygen use and safety issues, including links to BTS guidance on respiratory support of patients on medical wards, ARTP guidance for oxygen utilisation, an NHS England/NHS Improvement urgent safety notice for use of high flow oxygen therapy devices during the Coronavirus epidemic, and a Clinical guide for the management of surge during the coronavirus pandemic: rapid learning
- BTS guidance on Venous Thromboembolic Disease in patients with COVID-19. This document, aimed at respiratory and general medical physicians, summarises published data regarding the risks of VTE in patients with COVID-19, and discusses clinical issues regarding prevention, diagnosis and management of VTE. It includes a table with suggested doses of low molecular weight heparin according to risk/indication.
- Advice on the safety of nebuliser use.
- Information related to the supply of inhalers with an appeal for healthcare professionals to help maintain stocks by prescribing only on a monthly basis and advising patients not to stockpile, and discussing whether inhalers are still clinically needed, as well as advice to avoid switching inhaler types if possible (a link to the BTS/SIGN Asthma Guideline inhaler dose comparison chart is provided if alternatives are necessary) and to optimise inhaler technique (with links to online videos/apps).
- Guidance for healthcare professionals for COPD providing advice on continuing use of inhaled/oral corticosteroids, management of exacerbations with rescue antibiotics and short courses of oral corticosteroids, hygiene of inhalers and spacer devices, and transmission risks with nebulisation.
- Advice for healthcare professionals treating adults with asthma including how to advise patients (e.g. continue regular asthma medications, ensure sufficient supplies without over-ordering, do not share inhalers), management of asthma exacerbations (e.g. use of high dose salbutamol inhalers vs nebulisers, prescribing short courses of oral corticosteroids/antibiotics), and advice for patients with severe asthma including those on biological treatments.
- Lung cancer and mesithelioma guidance including patient counselling on risks of starting anti-cancer treatments and advice on use of systemic anti-cancer therapy (treatments/monitoring to omit, additional treatments to consider and how to minimise hospital attendance).
- Guidance for management of people with interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes updated advice on shielding for patients with ILD or sarcoidosis, and provides recommendations for patients already on or newly starting anti-fibrotic medications, e.g. pirfenidone, nintedanib or immunosuppression, as well as general advice on corticosteroids and preparation for post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis
- BTS guidance on provision of pleural services during the COVID-19 pandemic includes advice on admission of patients for talc pleurodesis or outpatient Indwelling Pleural Catheter (IPC) insertion, which may be considered if COVID-19 screening is negative and the procedure/admission can be completed in a non-COVID area with appropriate safety precautions in place.
- Resources for pulmonary rehabilitation include guidance on adapted delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation to patients surviving COVID-19 and guidance on reopening pulmonary rehabilitation services to existing patients with chronic lung disease. Resource packs are provided for professionals conducting pulmonary rehabilitation remote assessments and to support pulmonary rehabilitation whilst face to face PR is not possible
Cystic Fibrosis Trust: The impact of coronavirus on your CF care
Last updated 17 December 2020
- Provides answers to some of the questions raised by people with CF and their families concerned about changes to the way their care is delivered because of the COVID-19 outbreak.
- Includes a link to for patients to download a CF Medical Information Card to be presented in the event of hospital attendance to inform hospital staff of their treatments or care.
Cystic Fibrosis Trust: Coronavirus updates and FAQs
Last updated 16 September 2021
- Provides answers to commonly asked questions about COVID-19 and how it affects people with CF and their families.
- Includes advice about access to medicines, links to further information about the COVID-19 vaccine and CF, as well as an update on clinical trials during the pandemic.
Cystic Fibrosis Trust: Government and clinical guidance
Last updated 17 December 2020
- Provides links to the latest clinical and government guidance, including links to the latest statements from the UK CF Medical Association, information and statistics on numbers of people with CF who have or have had COVID-19, guidance for clinically extremely vulnerable individuals and information for the general population and and mental health and wellbeing aspects of COVID-19.
Primary Care Respiratory Society: COVID-19 Guidance
Last updated 14 September 2021
- Provides links to PCRS COVID-19 guidance as well as advice from other health professions and links to other information resources
- Of particular relevance to medicines is the PCRS Pragmatic Guidance for crisis management of asthma and COPD during the UK Covid-19 epidemic (May 2020). This guidance aims to respond to questions from primary care, especially around steroid use. Questions include whether oral corticosteroids (OCS) worsen outcomes, whether rescue packs should be issued, whether nebulisers should still be given if indicated, whether all asthma patients should be started on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), whether ICS should be stopped or reduced in stable asthma or COPD, and whether to advise patients to increase ICS dose or use OCS in asthma attacks or COPD exacerbation if Covid-19 may be the cause.
- Resources checked. Last updated dates amended where relevant. Link added to updated DHSC Therapeutic alert for IL-6 inhibitors and previous link removed. New links to information on vaccination in BTS guidance summarised.
- Resources checked and information remains correct (last updated dates amended where relevant)
- Resources checked and information remains correct
- Administration update with minor amendments to 'last updated' dates; link added to an updated joint BTS/ICS document, and to updated NHSE/I palivizumab commissioning policy
- Resources checked and information remains correct
- Resources checked and information remains correct
- Administration update adding new summaries, removing out of date summaries and updating current summaries and hyperlinks
- Administration update adding new summaries and updating current summaries and hyperlinks